Definite article: The

someone known to the reader/hearer

something known to the reader/hearer
Look at the man over there!

The house next to our house is very old.

Max is the right one for you, Sarah.

Can you drive me to the shop on the Jackson street?

Can I borrow the pen?

We gave the children some sweets.
something already mentionedThere was a funny monkey in the zoo yesterday. The monkey jumped and danced.

I saw a shop near our hotel. The shop closes at 7 o'clock.
superlative adjectivesHe is the best.

Today you will see the fastest car in the world!

It's the most beautiful flower in my garden.
only one of its kind in the worldThe president of France is visiting China this week.

The sun is shining.

The Queen is the head of the church of England.

The winter of 2007 was very cold.
countries with "states", "republic", "kingdom" in its name

plural countries
The republic of Ireland is a country in north-western Europe.

The United States of America have the biggest army in the world.

People who live in the Netherlands are called "Dutch".
citizen of countries


adjectives that describe social groups
The French are famous for their Eiffel tower.

The British are polite people.

The Johnsons are buying a new house.

The unemployed are protesting.

The rich often live in expensive villas.
geographical objects

well known artworks and buildings


The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world.

Is the Sahara the world's largest desert?

The Thames flows through London.

The Eiffel tower is in the centre of Paris.

The World Health Organization(WHO) is located in Geneva, Switzerland.

Indefinite article: a and an

Articles a and an have the same meaning:

"a" is used if the following word stars with a spoken vowel

"an" is used if the following word stars with a spoken consonant

a boy, a window, a uniform, a bus driver

an apple, an hour, an old bicycle

someone not yet known to the reader/hearer

something not yet known to the reader/hearer
I saw a man with a black hat yesterday.

A dog was walking in the park near our house.

An old bicycle was standing near the bus station.
Information about the personJoseph is a teacher.

My mother is a Catholic.

He is a student.
Statements or facts about somethingA tiger is an apex predator and a very dangerous animal.

A car should have at least 4 doors.

A man’s got to do what a man’s got to do.
days of the week, but no specific daysJeremy was born on a Friday.

Should we celebrate on a Saturday or Sunday?
words like half, quiet, rather, such, what, once, twice Our house is half a mile away from here.

That was quite a good day.

Such a weather is terrible.

What a strange man!

I do sports twice a day.

No article


Peter works hard every day.

Texas lies in the USA.

Paris is very beautiful in summer.

possessive pronouns (my, your, his, her, their, our...)Is that your car outside?

Our house is not far from here.

His cat is in our garden again.
demonstrative pronouns (this, these, that, those) Give me that pencil please.

This man is following me!
quantifiers (some, many, most, a lot of, few, every, each) Do you have some chips left?

You don't have to call me every hour!

Many people eat meat every day.
No indefinite article with nouns that we can't countCan you describe love?

Plants need water.

Is there milk in our fridge?
No indefinite article with plural nounsAre there cars on the highway tonight?

Mice are very small.

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